K. Bai, K.-M. Lee, Permanent Magnet Spherical Motors: Model and Field Based Approaches for Design, Sensing and Control, Springer, 2018. ISBN: 978-981-10-7961-0.

  • 获2019中国出版协会百种科技新书奖(建国70周年特别评选)
  • 获得中国国际合作出版协会颁发2019输出版优秀图书奖


  1. M. Li, Q. Xiao, Z. Wang, C. Liu and K. Bai*, “A Variable Stiffness Spherical Joint Motor by Magnetic Energy Shaping,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics, vol. 40, pp. 1410 – 1420, Nov. 2023, DOI: 10.1109/TRO.2023.3336319
  2. S. Wen, Y. Ding, X. Wu, and K. Bai*, “Kinematic Analysis and Robust Control of a Spherical-Motor-Based Visual Tracking System,” IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, pp. 1-9, 2023. DOI:10.1109/TMECH.2023.3274762
  3. K. Bai*, Y. Ding, Z. Que, H. Yan, X. Chen*, S. Wen, K.-M. Lee, “Regulation and Tracking Control of Omni-Directional Rotation for Spherical Motors,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, 2022. DOI:10.1109/TIE.2022.3163566.
  4. K. Bai*, W. Chen, K.-M. Lee, Z. Que, R. Huang, “Spherical Wrist with Hybrid Motion-Impedance Control for Enhanced Robotic Manipulations”, IEEE Trans. on Robotics, vol. 38, no. 2, 2022.  DOI: 10.1109/TRO.2021.3099310
  5. K. Bai*, H. Yan, and K.-M. Lee, “Robust control of a spherical motor in moving frame,” Mechatronics, vol. 75, p. 102548, May 1st, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.mechatronics.2021.102548.
  6. J. Li, K.-M. Lee*, and K. Bai*, “Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Temporal Interference for Selective Neuromuscular Activation,” IEEE Trans. on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 3100-3112, Dec., 2020. DOI: 10.1109/TNSRE.2020.3038025
  7. W. Dai, C. Zhang, Y. Mao*, and K. Bai*, “A transfer alignment method for inertial attitude correction of spherical motor on moving base,” Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 32, no. 10, p. 105023, 2021.
  8. Y. Huang, H. Wu, C. Zhu, W. Xiong, F. Chen, L. Xiao, J. Liu, K. Wang, H. Li, D. Ye, Y. Duan, J. Chen, H. Yang, W. Li, K. Bai, Z. Yin, and H. Ding, “Programmable robotized “transfer-and-jet” printing for large, 3D curved electronics on complex surfaces,” International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing, 2021.
  9. Q. Zou*, C. Clévy*, Y. K. Yong*, and K. Bai*, “Guest Editorial: Focused Section on Nano/Micromotion System: Design, Sensing, and Control,IEEE-ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 487-490, April, 2020.
  10. B. Hao, K.-M. Lee*, and K. Bai*, “Distributed current source modeling method for 3D eddy current problem in magnetic conductor with discrete state-space J-φ formulation,” Journal of Computational Physics, vol. 401, p. 109027, Jan. 2020. DOI: 10.1016/
  11. K.-M. Lee, L. Li, K. Bai*, X. Ouyang, H. Yang, “Harmonic Model and Remedy Strategy of Multiphase PM Motor under Open-Circuit Fault,” IEEE-ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1407-1419, March, 2019.  DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2019.2906850.
  12. K. Bai*, J. Qin, K.-M. Lee* and B. Hao, “Design and Chatter Prediction Analysis of a Duplex Face Turning Machine for Manufacturing Disk-like Workpieces”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 140, pp. 12-19, Jan., 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2019.01.006.
  13. K. Bai*, L. Zhu, M. Yuan, K.-M. Lee*, “Design Concept Development of a Variable Magnetization Motor with Improved Efficiency and Controllable Stiffness for Robotic Applications”, SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 39-46, 2019. DOI: 10.1007/s11431-018-9406-5.
  14. 白坤,朱朗,袁密,李国民;面向机器人应用的具有改进效率和可控刚度的变磁化电机[J];中国科学:技术科学;2019年01期,卷: 49, 期: 1, 页: 121-122,摘要论文。
  15. K.-M. Lee*, B. Hao, M. Li and K. Bai*, “Multiparameter Eddy-current Sensor Design for Conductivity Estimation and Simultaneous Distance and Thickness Measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1647-1657, March 2019. DOI: 10.1109/TII.2018.2843319.
  16. K. Bai*, R. Xu, K.-M. Lee*, W. Dai, and Y. Huang, “Design and Development of a Spherical Motor for Conformal Printing of Curved Electronics,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 9190-9200, Feb. 2018. DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2018.2808931.
  17. L. Li, K.-M. Lee*, K. Bai*, X. Ouyang*, H. Yang, “Inverse Models and Harmonics Compensation for Suppressing Torque Ripples of Multiphase Permanent Magnet Motor,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 8730-8739, Feb. 2018.  DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2018.2808935.
  18. W. Dong, Y. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Bai, Z. Ju, J. Guo, G. Gu, K. Bai, G. Ouyang, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, “Soft Human-Machine Interfaces: Design, Sensing and Stimulation”, International Journal of Intelligent Robotics and Applications, vol. 2, no.3, pp. 313–338, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s41315-018-0060-z.
  19. K. Bai, K.-M. Lee, J. Cao, R. Xu, and L. Li, “Design and Decoupled Compensation Methods of a PM Motor Capable of 6-D Force/Torque Actuation for Minimum Bearing Reaction,” IEEE-ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 2252-2264, Oct. 2017. DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2017.2713397
  20. K.-M. Lee, L. Yang, K. Bai, and J. Ji, “An Efficient Flexible Division Algorithm for Predicting Temperature-Fields of Mechatronic System with Manufacturing Applications,” IEEE-ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1818-1827, Aug. 2017. DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2017.2715559
  21. K. Bai, K.-M. Lee, J. Lu, “A Magnetic Flux Model Based Method for Detecting Multi-DOF Motion of a Permanent Magnet Spherical Motor”, Mechatronics, vol. 39, pp. 217-225, Nov. 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.mechatronics.2016.06.001
  22. K. Bai and K.-M. Lee, “Direct Field-Feedback Control of a Ball-Joint-Like Permanent-Magnet Spherical Motor”, IEEE-ASME Trans. On Mechatronics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 975 – 986, June 2014. DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2013.2264565
  23. B. Pridgen, K. Bai and W. Singhose, “Shaping Container Motion for Multi-Mode and Robust Slosh Suppression”, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol.50, no. 2, pp. 440-448, 2013. DOI: 10.2514/1.A32137
  24. K. Bai, J, Ji, K.-M. Lee, S. Zhang, “A Two-mode Six-DOF Motion System based on a Ball-joint-like Spherical Motor for Haptic Applications “, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 978-987, Sept. 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.camwa.2012.02.037.
  25. S. Foong, K.-M. Lee and K. Bai, “Harnessing Embedded Magnetic Fields for Angular Sensing with Nanodegree Accuracy”, IEEE-ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 687-696, Aug. 2012. DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2011.2119325
  26. H. Son, K. Bai, J. Lim and K.-M. Lee, “Design of Multi-Dof Electromagnetic Actuators Using Distributed Multipole Models and Image Method”, International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, vol. 34, pp. 195-210, 2010. DOI:10.3233/JAE-2010-1311
  27. K.-M. Lee, K. Bai and J. Lim, “Dipole Models for Forward/Inverse Torque Computation of a Spherical Motor”, IEEE-ASME Trans. on Mechatronics, vol. 14, pp. 46-54, Feb 2009. DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2008.2010935


  1. M. Li, Y. Deng, K. Bai, “Energy Gradient Descent Method for Actuation of a Direct-Drive Spherical Robotic Wrist”, International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications, 2022, Harbin, China.
  2. B. Hao, K.-M. Lee*, K. Bai*, “Eddy-Current Dynamic Model for Simultaneous Geometrical and Material Parameter Measurements of Magnetic Materials”, ASME 2018 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Atlanta, USA, Sept 30-Oct 3, 2018.
  3. K.-M. Lee*, J. Li, K. Bai*, “ A novel current-interference scanning method for detection of abnormal tissues”, ASME 2018 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference (DSCC), Atlanta, USA, Sept 30-Oct 3, 2018.
  4. K. Bai, K.-M. Lee, J. Lu and M. Yuan, “Design of a Compliant Knee-Motion Actuator for Lower Extremity Exoskeletons”, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Banff, Canada, July 12-16, pp. 1457 – 1462, 2016.
  5. K. Bai, K.-M. Lee, J. Cao and B. Hao, “ Analytical development of a minimum bearing reaction twin-motor for duplex machining”, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Busan, Korea, July 7-11, pp. 1457 – 1462, 2015.
  6. K. Bai and K.-M. Lee, “ Magnetic Field Model for Direct Field-Feedback Control of a Permanent Magnet Spherical Motor”, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Wollongong, Australia, July 9-12, pp. 768-773, 2013.
  7. K. Bai and K.-M. Lee, “ A Sensor-Less Motion Sensing Method of a 3-DOF Permanent Magnet Spherical Motor”, IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 6th IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 160-164, Hangzhou, China, April 10-12, 2013.
  8. K. Bai, K.-M. Lee and S. Foong, “Direct Field-Feedback Control for Multi-Dof Spherical Actuators”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Shanghai, China, pp. 5825-5830, 2011.
  9. B. Hao, X. Liu, K.-M. Lee, K. Bai, “State-Space Model and Analysis of Motion-Induced Eddy-Current Based on Distributed Current Source Method”, 2019 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), HongKong, China, July 8-11, 2019.
  10. C-Y Lin, J. Li, K.-M. Lee, K. Bai, “Distributed Parameter Element Method for Design Analysis of Electrical Muscle Stimulation”, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Auckland, New Zealand, July 9-12, pp. 1069-1074, 2018.
  11. K.-M. Lee, M. Li and K. Bai, “ An Investigation of Eddy-Current Effects on Parameter Monitoring for Duplex Lathe Machining Of thin-Wall Components,” ASME 2014 Dynamic Systemsand Control Conference (DSCC), October 22-24, 2014, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
  12. L. Yang, K.-M. Lee and K. Bai, “ Thermal field modeling algorithm based on flexible space division for high-power, high-precision mechatronic systems”, IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Besançon, France, July 8-11, pp. 742 – 747, 2014.
  13. J. Ji,  K.-M. Lee, K. Bai, S. Zhang, “A Generalized Framework using Hardware-in-Evaluation-Loop for Design Optimization,” IEEE/ASME AIM, July 11-14, 2012, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2012.
  14. B. Pridgen, K. Bai and W. Singhose, “Slosh Suppression by Robust Input Shaping”, IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 2316-2321 , 2010.
  15. S. Foong, K.-M. Lee and K. Bai, “Magnetic Field-Based Sensing Method for Spherical Joint”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Anchorage, AK, pp. 5447-5452, 2010.
  16. K.-M. Lee, J. Lim and K. Bai, “Magnetic Dipoles for Electromagnetic Multi-Dof Actuator Design”, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 3335-3340, 2009.
  17. K.-M. Lee, H. Son and K. Bai, “Image Method with Distributed Multipole Models for Analyzing Permanent-Magnet-Based Electromagnetic Actuators”, ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, pp. 1083-1089, 2008.
  18. K.-M. Lee, K. Bai, J. Lim and H. Son, “Spherical Motor Design for a Multi-Dof Tiltable Stage,” 4th International Workshop on Micromanufacturing Technology, pp. 31-38, 2008.
  19. K.-M. Lee, H. Son, K. Bai, J. Park, “Development of a Magnetically Levitated Multi-DOF Tiltable Stage for Micro Machining”, in 3rd International Workshop on Micromanufacturing Technology, pp. 19-26, 2007.



  1.  白坤,温生雄,阙子歆,一种多自由度吊舱直驱系统,专利申请号:2022103970945,申请日:2022-04-15。
  2. 白坤,黄榕,曾勇,一种柔性线性驱动系统,专利申请号:2021111424682.5,申请日:2021-11-27。
  3. 白坤,李习银,李孟轲,丁耀武,唐明章,阙子歆,一种球形电机多自由度姿态测量系统, 专利号:202110914438.0,授权公告日:2022-05-24
  4. 白坤,李孟轲,邓雅晴,唐明章,一种基于球关节电机的六维力反馈装置,专利申请号:202111299208.4,申请日:2021.11.04。
  5. 白坤,李孟轲,一种基于球关节驱动的穿刺手术机器人主手及其系统,专利申请号:202110309044.2,申请日:2021-03-24。
  6. 白坤,李孟轲,阙子歆,丁耀武,李习银,一种多自由度电机, 专利号:202110443746.X,授权公告日:2022-05-13
  7. 李国民,郝兵杰,白坤,一种可同时测量金属工件位移及厚度的方法,专利号:201910135095.0,授权公告日:2020-07-30
  8. 白坤,胡广宙,李国民,一种具有肌力反馈功能的多模式肌力训练装置, 专利申请号:201910005689.X,申请日:2019-01-03。
  9. 白坤,苏崔聪,李国民,一种基于距离测量求解球关节三自由度姿态的装置及方法,专利号:201811015253.0,授权公告日:2019-12-24
  10. 白坤,李国民,代旺,一种适用于球形电机的负载补偿机构及球形电机,专利号:201810556354.2,授权公告日:2019-06-28
  11. 白坤,李国民,王浩,一种适用于球形电机的转子抱闸机构及球形电机,专利号:201810521874.X,授权公告日:2019-08-13
  12. 白坤,袁密,朱朗,李国民,一种可磁化重构的机器人关节电机,专利号:201810331770.2,授权公告日:2020-01-03
  13. 李国民,郝兵杰,白坤,李敏,一种可同时测量金属工件位移及厚度的涡流传感器及方法,专利号:2017106045781,授权公告日:2019-07-08
  14. 黄永安,吴昊,陈建魁,尹周平,李文龙,白坤, 一种复杂曲面电子系统的共形制造设备及方法, 专利号:2018102382668,授权公告日:2019-05-21
  15. 白坤,李国民,袁密,王东海,一种柔性膝关节外骨骼装置及其驱动方法,专利号:2016111739800,授权公告日:2019-04-12
  16. 白坤,李国民,许若愚,王瑜辉,张超,一种基于电磁驱动和传感模块的可组装自动化运输系统,专利号:201610040379.8, 授权公告日:2018-08-31
  17. 白坤,李国民,赵杰,王瑜辉,张超,一种自带姿态传感的永磁球关节及其测量方法,专利号:201610037796.7, 授权公告日:2018-05-04
  18. 白坤,李国民,陆锦锦,一种永磁电机,专利号:201510664411.5,授权公告日:2017-12-06
  19. 李国民,白坤,曹俊,一种机床主轴电机中平衡外力负载的方法, 专利号:201510288664.7,授权公告日:2017-09-29


  1. BAI, Kun; LI, Mengke; QUE, Zixin; DING, Yaowu, LI, Xiyin; Multi-degree-of-freedom spherical motor; Application No. 17379971, 2021-07-19. (已受理)
  2. BAI, Kun; ZHU, Lang; YUAN, Mi; LEE, Kok Meng; MAGNETICALLY RECONFIGURABLE ROBOT JOINT MOTOR; Filing Date: 07/14/2020, Application No. 16961934. Patent No. US 11251689B2, Date of Patent: Feb. 15, 2022 (已授权)
  3. Yongan Huang, YIN Zhouping, Hao Wu, CHEN Jiankui, Wenlong Li, Kun Bai;Conformal manufacturing device and method for complex curved-surface electronic system;Publication date: 2021/3/11, Application number: 16340380, Patent No. US 20210076503A1 (已授权)
  4. K.-M. Lee, H. Son, J. K. Park and K. Bai, “Multiple-Degree of Freedom System and Method of Using Same”, Publication number: US20100264756 A1; Publication type: Application; Application number: US 12/608,838; Publication date: Oct 21, 2010; Filing date: Oct 29, 2009; Priority date: Oct 29, 2008.(已授权)
  5. K.-M. Lee, S. Foong, K. Bai and X. Chen, “Method of magnetic field-based sensing for position and force measurements and motion control”, 2011.(已授权)


  1. BAI, Kun; YUAN, Mi; ZHU, Lang; LEE, Kok Meng; MAGNETICALLY RECONFIGURABLE ROBOT JOINT MOTOR; PCT/CN2019/084717; WIPO Patent Application (公开号) WO 2019196960 A1; Application Number: CN2019/084717; Publication Date: 10/17/2019; Filing Date: 04/28/2019.
  2. BAI, Kun; LEE, Kok Meng; XU, Ruoyu; WANG, Yuhui; ZHANG, Chao; Automated Transport System Capable of Being Assembled and Based on Electromagnetic Drive and Sensing Module, PCT/CN2016/072101; WIPO Patent Application (公开号) WO 2017124574 A1; Application Number: CN2016/072101; Publication Date: 07/27/2017; Filing Date: 01/26/2016; 公告号 CN105600469A;
  3. BAI, Kun; LEE, Kok Meng; ZHAO, Jie; WANG, Yuhui; ZHANG, Chao; Permanent magnet ball joint with posture sensing function and measuring method thereof, PCT/CN2016/072099; WIPO Patent Application (公开号) WO 2017124573 A1; Application Number: CN2016/072099; Publication Date: 07/27/2017; Filing Date: 01/26/2016; 公告号: CN105587757A.
  4. BAI, Kun; LEE, Kok Meng; LU, JinJin; Permanent magnet motor; PCT/CN2015/094318; WIPO Patent Application (公开号) WO 2017063244 A1; Application Number: CN2015/094318; Publication Date: 04/20/2017; Filing Date: 11/11/2015; 公告号CN105305892A.
  5. LEE, Kok Meng; BAI, Kun; Method for balancing external force load in machine tool spindle motor; PCT/CN2015/094306; WIPO Patent Application (公开号) WO 2016192308 A1 Application Number: CN2015/094306; Publication Date: 12/08/2016; Filing Date: 11/11/2015; 公告号: CN104866677A.